Aliya İzzetbegoviç

Alija Izetbegovich (Bosnian saying: [alija iz Ekimtb öit25] Alija Izetbegović; d. 8 August 1925 - 19 October 2003), Bosniak statesman and the first president of independent Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In 1925, Aliya Izetbegovic arrived in the town of Bosanski Šamac, northwest of Bosnia and Herzegovina. His family was a family with Islamic sensibility. However, Izetbegović grew up in an environment that saw Muslims as entering Europe from outside. He studied at a German high school in Sarajevo. He was recognized as a student who paid attention to science and worked with discipline. He came to the fore in high school with his outstanding abilities and his interest in Islamic subjects. At that time, he and some friends formed a club called Mladi Muslimani (Muslim Youth Club) to discuss religious issues. When he founded this club, he was only 16 years old, but it was observed that he had a very efficient and productive thinking ability. That is why the club that it founded turned out to be an activity club rather than a thought club. Therefore, he started to lead some training and charity activities. He also created a separate unit for girls. During the Second World War, he helped the needy.
The Muslim Youth Club founded by Izetbegović carried out very important activities. With his activities during the Second World War, he became an eye for everyone. During this war, however, all Yugoslavia was occupied by the Germans. During this war, Serbian Chetniks benefited from German troops and killed 100,000 Muslims in Bosnia.
On January 13, 1946, Yugoslavia became independent again. However, since the Communist Party supporters played an important role in this independence movement, they also took control of the country after independence. They also defined the official status of the country as the federal republics union. Accordingly, Yugoslavia would be composed of six federal republics and two autonomous regions, and one of the republics would be the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. With the communist regime taking over the country's rule, the existence of religions in social life was gradually reduced. Izetbegović was one of the most important goals of communist rulers because he defended political Islam and was against atheism. For this reason, he was imprisoned on charges of Islamism in 1949 and was sentenced to five years in prison. Izetbegović's problems have increased even more in the time of Tito, who came to power in 1953. In the meantime, the system is engaged in dealing with the issues of Muslims, Hasan Duzu, contacted him by establishing a relationship with the studies began. After Tito drafted a new constitution in 1974, the administration had partially alleviated his control over religion, allowing some traditional Islamic institutions to re-function. Upon this softening, some mosques and madrasas were reopened. The reintroduction of some religious institutions, albeit on a minor scale, paved the way for a rapid Islamic settlement among Muslims.
When Tito died in 1980, a dispute arose over the presidency of the federation. So, each of the six federal states agreed that the president would, in turn, hold a one-year federation presidency. With this development, a democratization process has been entered into the country. Because those who wanted to go to government in the federal states were able to carry out activities through political parties. Accordingly, there was an expansion in freedom. Izetbegović's son made use of this environment in his father's articles in a book, and in 1983, "Islamic Manifesto" published under the name. Izetbegović had previously published a book in 1970 with this name. The publication of the book in 1983 attracted a great deal. The judiciary system could not tolerate this development and accused Izetbegović of working to establish a radical Islamic republic in the middle of Europe. Izetbegović was brought before a court and charged with yıl changing the judiciary system and working to transform Bosnia-Herzegovina into an Islamic state Bos and was sentenced to 14 years in prison after the trial. But this conviction allowed her to show her influence and influence in all Bosnia. Muslims were trying to procure his book in various ways. The fact that the author of the book was imprisoned for this book led to an increase in the influence of those who read it in their souls.
The decision of the Court of Cassation was later reduced to 11 years. In 1988, he was released with an amnesty. His five-year imprisonment (1983-1988) had a significant impact on Izetbegović's life. He had the opportunity to think in prison, to produce ideas and to benefit from previously produced ideas. Besides, the fact that he was imprisoned because of an important idea led him to have a lot of repercussions in his environment. He also published his well-known book entitled "Islam Between East and West ı, during which time he was imprisoned. He published this book with a friend and it was a very short time when he reached out to a large audience. With this book, Izetbegović aimed to bring Islam to generations that grew up in a simple and concise form.
When Izetbegović got out of prison, the Communist regimes in the world had entered a period of collapse. In Yugoslavia, there was not much sensitivity to the protection of the old federal structure. Instead, pro-independence ideas began to show their influence. In addition, active political races began to be passed in the provinces. Alija Izetbegovic founded a political party called the Democratic Action Party (SDA) in the Autonomous Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The party won the general elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina on 5 December 1990, and his leader, Alija Izetbegovic, became president. This was the first election that the SDA entered, but it was a huge success and won the presidency, as well as 86 seats in parliament. Due to illness, on 14 March 1996, the President was forced to resign.
When the 1990s entered an independence movement within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Autonomous republics declared their independence or expressed their intention after that. Bosnia and Herzegovina declared its independence after the referendum on March 1, 1992. Because in the referendum, 62.8% of the people preferred independence. The Serbs, however, launched a new massacre movement by launching a war against Muslims who had a say in Bosnia and Herzegovina. European countries and the United States, which supported the independence struggle of Croatia and Slovenia, left Bosnia and Herzegovina alone in the face of Serbian attacks. It was the third largest army in Europe, which put Bosnia and Herzegovina's Muslims in the most distressed, by acting together with the Serbian gangs of the Yugoslavian Federal Army. The Muslims lacked any military support and were very weak in terms of weapons. As a result, the Serbs occupied the important cities of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This occupation movement forced almost one million Muslims to migrate. Serbs were both massacres and demolitions in the places they occupied. In particular, the mosques and Islamic artifacts that bear the traces of the historical works. Negotiations and mediation work on various dates for the solution of the Bosnia-Herzegovina issue did not yield any results. By the end of 1994, the number of cannons in Bosnia and Herzegovina was 250,000, and the number of people forced to migrate exceeded 1 million. President of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Alija Izetbegovic, followed a very cautious policy in order not to face the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina, who have very large military power and opportunity, and who lack any military means and have no external support.
A group of Muslim peoples came to the resistance of the Muslims of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Young people from different regions of the Islamic world went to this country to stop the resistance. Resistance and war also led to an increase in Islamic awareness among Muslims in Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, the country's administrations largely left the Muslims of Bosnia and Herzegovina alone. At the time of the massacre, they pressured Muslims to accept the demands of Serbs. In the face of these political pressures and unequal war conditions, Izetbegović accepted the agreement. Because the continuation of the war thought that the Muslims of Bosnia could result in the emergence of a complete genocide. As a result, the war ended when the US-imposed Dayton Agreement was signed in 1995. The deal gave 51% of Bosnia and Herzegovina's territory to Muslims and Christian Croats, and 49% to the Serbs (or Serbs settled there) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Management stipulated that these three people should be shared. Under the agreement, the United States also ordered Muslims to destroy their weapons and buy US patented weapons without spare parts.

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