Crash Crater

Impact craters , Solar System 's in (or elsewhere) in the planet , moon at the surface or another solid object, smaller body surface hyper speed is an annular depression formed by the multiplier. In contrast to volcanic craters , which are caused by an explosion or internal collapse , the impact crater raises the lower edges and floors as the height of the surrounding area. The multiplication craters are scattered from a small, simple, bowl-shaped collapse to a large, complex plural pool. The Barringer Meteor Crater, in the state of Arizona , is the most well-known example of a small crash crater in the world.

Impact craters on the Moon , Mercury , Callisto , Ganymede 's and also small moons and asteroids also contains many Solar Systems elements of the dominant geographic özellikleridir.aktif surface geological processes more tecrube acquirer in other planets and satellites, Earth , Venus , Mars , Europa , Io and As the titan , it may appear Multiply craters tectonics over timeIt is less common due to wear, embedding and conversion. More of this kind of process where distort the original crater topography shock structure or astrobleme terms kullanılır.es in the literature, to identify the impact-related features in the new notice before being noticed exactly the meaning of impact crater formation hidden burst structure or Cryptovolcanic structure was used terms.

Crater formation records of ancient surfaces, such as Mercury, Moon and southern highlands of Mars, record intense early bombardment periods in the inner Solar System approximately 9.3 billion years ago . one million every year, a 20 km diameter crater for the formation of a multiplication of up to three to get the experience .. This shows that the planet has been discovered more than the young crater. fluctuates as a result of collisions. 160 million years ago in a collision occurred BaptistinaIt is thought that the family crater formation rate may be different from the internal Solar System.

The world's active surface processes is able to destroy easily multiply records also been identified approximately 170 terrestrial impact craters .. They radius range, while up to 300 kilometers over 10 meters, age as of the close of time (eg witness to the formation in 1947 olunuş in Russia Sikhote- Alin Craters are based on a period of up to 2 billion years. Most of the geological processes were thought to occur less than 500 million years ago due to the tendency to erode older craters. Crushed craters were also found in the stable inner regions of the continents. The rate of rapid change of the ocean bottom is very low, as it is difficult to investigate the seabed due to the reasons such as the fact that a continental plate falls under another continental plate due to plate tectonics.The crater craters should not be confused with the earth shapes like caldera .
Daniel Barringer (1860-1929), the first man to describe the crater crater, described the Meteor Crater in Arizona , and this crater was attributed as the Barringer Crater . even when defined.

In the 1920s, American geologist Walter.H.Butcher worked on many areas in the United States , where it is now recognized as a crash crater . In 1936, the geoscientist John D.Boon and Claude C.Albrittton Jr reviewed Bucher's research and concluded that the craters he was working on were probably due to bumps.

The subject of crater formation continued to be speculative until the 1960s. At this time, some researchers, Eufene M.Shoemaker (the explorer of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet ), gathered detailed research on many craters, and clearly concluded that they were due to impacts. The determination of metamorphic effects, especially shocked, was associated with impact events (most commonly associated with shocked quartz ).

Shocked equipped with the knowledge of the metamorphic features Carlyle s.beals and Dominion Observatory 's in his colleagues and also Germany ' in Tübingen University 's from Wolf von Engelhardt , the impact craters of systematic years başladı.1970l research, more than 50 impact craters open to debate their work tanımladılar.yap Although the Apollo Moon Journey Project , which was in progress at the time, showed the rate of impact crater formation on the Moon, it provided supportive evidence for the studies. The erosion process in the Moon was minimal and thus the craters preserved their existence indefinitely. It is clear that when the Earth is almost as likely to have the same rate of crater as the Moon, the Earth has been hit by more than it appears.

Crater Formation
File: Impact movie.ogv
laboratory simulation of the impact moment
Tsarpa crater formation involves high velocity impacts between solid objects, and this velocity is even higher than sound velocity. Such hyper-velocity impacts cause physical effects such as invisible melting and evaporation in collisions under the familiar sound velocity. when the effect is ignored, the most low speed collision with an object from space 11 km / h gravitational escape velocityThe fastest collisions are 72 km / h even in the worst case scenario, as the objects moving in the opposite direction of the parabolic trajectories strike the Earth (because the kinetic energy increases depending on the square of the velocity, Earth's gravity is only 1 km / h The average impact speed on the Earth is about 20 kilometers per second.

The decelerating effects of the atmosphere, however, will slow down any possible impact devices rapidly, especially the meteors of the lowest 12 kilometers of Earth's atmospheric mass, up to 7,000 kilograms, and will lose their cosmic velocities from the atmospheric resistance of 0.09 to 0.16 km. The greater the cosmic velocity of the Earthstone (asteroids and comets), the greater the initial cosmic velocity that it will maintain. A body of 1000 kilograms maintains about 6% of its original velocity; An object of 900.00 kilograms retains 70%. The large bodies (about 100.00 tonnes) are not slowed down by the atmosphere and, if no fragmentation occurs, they multiply by their first cosmic velocity.

Such high speed collisions create shock waves in solid objects , the impact device and the multiplied object are quickly compressed into high density. it is close to being created by high explosives rather than displacement. In fact, the energy density of some of the substances in the formation of impact crater is higher than those created by high explosives.

This explains the collisions on solid surfaces. As with Hyperion , impacts with pores can create an internal compression without spraying, which may explain the spongy appearance of the Moon. It is appropriate to divide the multiplication process into three distinct stages:

(1) first contact and jamming, (2) my vote, (3) change and collapse. In practice, there are conflicts between these 3 stages.

Initial Contact and Jam
In the absence of atmospheres , the multiplication device starts to multiply by the first contact with the surface of the target. This contact accelerates the acceleration of the impacting device while accelerating the acceleration of the target. In the event of a large impact, the pressure peak exceeds 1 TPa.

In the physical sense, the shock wave is started from the point of contact. With the expansion of this shock wave, its acceleration decreases and compresses the impact device, it accelerates and compresses the target. irreversible damage. Many crystal minerals can be converted into high-density phases by shock waves. For example, the quartz -like form of high-pressure coesite and stichoviteconvertible. Many other shock-related changes occur in the impactor and the target by the penetration of the shock-wave, and some of these changes can be used as a means to define whether the geological characters are generated by the impact craters.

With the deterioration of the shock wave, the pressure of the shock zone decreases to a more normal pressure and density. The damage caused by the shock wave increases the temperature of the material. melts.

Voted
The contact, compression, pressure reduction and also the passage of the shock wave take place at one tenth of a second for big bumps. and during this process the flow of matter is below the velocity of sound. During the course of the course, the crater grows with the acceleration of the target substance, which gains momentum. The movement of the target are initially up and down but after the outward and inward olur.akış first almost continues to grow half getirir.çuk a spherical pit formed over time paraboloid (bowl shape), the material of which the center of the push-down is sprayed a substantial portion and crater edges When this pit reaches its maximum width, it is called a short-term pit.

The depth of the temporary pit is one third of its radius. The crevices removed from the crater do not cover the deepest excavated material of the temporary crater, typically the depth of the maximum is about one-third of the total depth. The remaining two-thirds consisted of the displacement of the substance downwards, upwards and outwards. In the case of impacts towards the pore-bearing materials, a significant amount of crater volume may have been formed by permanent compaction of the cavity volume. Such compaction craters may be important for asteroids , comets and small satellites.

In the case of large impacts, when the material is displaced and also displaced from the crater, a significant volume of the target substance may be melted or vaporized with the original impactor. The vaporized substance quickly expands out of the growing pit. As it expands the vapor cloud expands, it rises and cools as an archetypal mushroom cloud of large nuclear explosions. reach the height and spread to the empty space.

Most of the material ejected from the crater is deposited within the crater radius, but a small part moves to large distances at high speed, and in large bumps it can overcome its survival rate and leave the multiplied planet or satellite. The majority of the fastest substances were sprayed close to the impact center, and the slowest materials were sprayed near the edges at low speed. With the ejection of the spray from the expanding crater, it forms an inverted cone-expanding chamber, the trajectory of each particle within the chamber being thought to be broadly ballistic.

Changing and crashing

Fragmentation by air may change the appearance of the crater. This mound in Mars can be a result of the crater that crushed the erosion .
In most cases, the temporary pit is not stable: it collapses under gravity. In small craters, there is a limited collapse of the crater edges associated with the crater, which has a radius of less than 4 kilometers on the Earth, is slid into the crater walls joined to the rubble and attracted to the deeper pit of the impact solutions. In the case of simple craters, the top of the original cavity is covered by the collapse of breccia , eruption and molten rocks, and some of the central crater floor may be flat.


Jupiter's plural-ringed pool Valhalla Callisto
Over the specific lower boundary dimension, which varies according to planetary gravity, the transient crater collapse and also the change is larger in diameter, and the building is called a complex crater . The central upward pavement is not a result of the elastic back tab.

Complex craters have elevated centers, as well as large non-deep deep crater floors and terraced walls. In the largest dimensions, one or more outer and inner rings may appear and the structure can be labeled as a multiplication pool rather than a crash crater . Centrifugal topographic crested small complex craters centrifugal peak craters called, for example Tycho : centrifugal hill top medium is replaced by a ring sized craters peak-ring craters called, for example, Schrodinger : as well as multiple concentric largest crater with terrestrial rings, multi- ring pools , for example, OrientaleOn the contrary, unlike the horizontal bodies, the morphological forms with central pits rather than the central hills can be seen, and they can contain many concentric rings in the largest dimensions - Valhallaon Callisto is an example.

Defining Crash Craters
Some volcanic shapes can resemble impact craters, and brecciated rocks are associated with crater craters as well as other geological forms. and also different features.

A distinctive sign of impact craters is the presence of rocks that have been exposed to shock-metaphormic effects, such as fragmentation cones, molten rocks, distorted crystals. tends to emerge.

Bumps cause distinct shock-metamorphic effects that allow the impact area to be distinctly defined. Such shock-metamorphic effects include: - a brecciated layer or a brecciated rock beneath the crater's floor. This layer is called breccia lenses . - Zigzag-shaped impression cone cones in the leaves . These cones can easily form in fine-grained rocks. -Komun, top-lines, tektitlerinor the high-temperature rock types, including the solid and welded blocks of glassy sprinkles. The origin of the impacts of the tectites was questioned by some researchers: they observed some valkonic shapes that did not exist on impacts, but rather dry (less water). When the rocks resemble rocks, the tektites contain un-fused basic rock fragments, form unconventional large and unbroken areas, and have more complex chemical compositions than volcanic substances from the Earth. Meteorites associated with nickel , platinum , iridium and cobaltNote: The scientific literature has reported that some "shock" shapes, such as small fragmentation cones associated with impact events, are found in terrestrial volcanic jets. Microscopic pressure disturbances of minerals . These include crack samples in the formation of high-pressure substances such as diamonds formed from feldspar , quartz , crystal and other carbon compounds. - Embedded craters, such as the Decorah Crater , can be identified by nucleation, air electromagnetic resistance imaging, and an airborne gravity inclinometer.

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