J. J. Thomson

Sir Joseph John "J. J." Thomson (PRS *, owner of the Order of Merit) (born December 18, 1856 - August 30, 1940), British physicist.

Electrons are known for discovering the isotope concept and inventing mass spectrometry. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1906 for his work on the electrical conductivity of gases and his discovery of the electrons. Joseph John Thomson was born in 1856 in Cheetham, England. His mother, Emma Swindells, came from a locally engaged family. Her father, Joseph James Thomson, was running an ancient book shop that was founded by the Scottish great-grandfather. He had a brother who was two years younger than Frederick Vernon Thomson. The first years of education were spent in small private schools. In these schools, he showed great interest and talent to science. In 1870, he was accepted to Owen College. At that time, when he was admitted to the school, he was unusually young, only 14 years old. Her parents wanted to hire her as a locomotive-producer-assist engineer at Sharp-Stewart & Co., but the plans did not last long as her father died in 1873. In 1876, Trinity College moved to Cambridge. In 1880 he received a bachelor's degree in mathematics with two prizes and a master's degree in mathematics with an award in 1883. In 1884, he became a senior physics professor at Cambridge University. One of his students was Ernest Rutherford, who would later be very successful. In 1890 he married Rose Elisabeth Paget, the daughter of Sir George Edward Paget, a physicist and medical professor. There was a boy, George Paget Thomson, and a daughter, Joan Page Thomson. One of Thomson's greatest contributions to modern science was his role as a highly gifted teacher in the acquisition of the seven research assistants and his former son's Nobel Prize in physics. His son won the Nobel Prize in 1937, proving the wave-like characteristics of electrons. In 1906 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for his theoretical and experimental work on the electrical conductivity of gases. He was knighted in 1908 and was awarded the Order of Merit in 1912. In 1914, he gave free public lectures at Oxford on "Atomic Theory." In 1918 he became the Dean of Trinity College, where he stayed until his death. He died on 30 August 1940 and was buried near Westminster Abbey near Sir Isaac Newton. Thomson was admitted as a member of the Royal Society on June 12, 1884, and later became chairman of the Royal Society between 1915 and 1920.


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